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Stakeholder input wanted: survey on research needs for assessing GMO impacts 

Shaping the Future of GMO Research

Stakeholder with interests in the risk and/or benefit assessment of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO’s) are invited to take part in an online survey.

The aim of this survey is to identify which research needs should be prioritised, thereby contributing to the commissioning of research on the health, environment and economic impacts of GMOs.

The survey will close on 15th July 2015.

More information and access to the online survey

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Possible application of gene technology Labelling
Lecithin from GM-soya yes
Citric acid produced with the help of GM-microorganisms no
Fats from GM-plants (for glazing) yes


Description of product

Chocolate is a product made from cocoa. It consists of various amounts of cocoa solids, cocoa butter, sugar, milk powder, lecithin and vanillin.

  • A new EU guideline for cocoa and chocolate came into effect on 3 August 2000. According to this guideline, chocolate may contain, besides the cocoa butter, up to 5% of a cocoa butter equivalent. These are plant fats that can be mixed well with the cocoa butter. Butter or oils from Illipe, palm, sal, shea, kokum gurgi, mango kernels and coconut have been approved.
  • Chocolate products containing a cocoa butter equivalent must carry a clear indication, i.e. "contains other plants fats besides cocoa butter".
  • The addition of animal fats and their products that are not derived from milk are forbidden. The addition of flour and starch is also not allowed.
  • Products that do not comply with these guidelines may not be labelled as chocolate. The term "Chocolate selection" is allowed .
  • See also:confectionery, nut-nougat cream

Possible application of gene technology

Applications of gene technology are possible in the following ingredients that commonly are found in chocolate. However, the extent to which a particular product is affected by these possibilities cannot be stated with certainty:

For filled chocolates, chocolate bars and pralines further gene technological application are conceivable, as well as for specialities and dietary products, e.g.:

Bakery products, ice cream or sweets are often not coated with chocolate, but with a cocoa-containing glaze. This contains plant fats in place of the cocoa butter.

Genetically modified microorganisms can be used in the production of these cocoa butter substitutes, such as:


 GMO Database
GM Food and Feed: Authorization in the EU
GMO Database: Contains information on every GM plant that has been approved or is awaiting authorisation in the EU.
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